LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamps work by converting electrical energy into light using a semiconductor material. An LED is made of a semiconductor material, such as gallium arsenide, which has been doped with impurities to create a p-n junction.
When a voltage is applied to the p-n junction, it creates a flow of electrons from the negative side (n-type) to the positive side (p-type), causing the electrons to combine with the holes in the p-type material, and releasing energy in the form of light.
The color of the light produced by an LED is determined by the type of semiconductor material used, and can range from red to blue to green and beyond. LED lamps are highly efficient, using much less energy than traditional incandescent or fluorescent lamps. They also have a much longer lifespan, making them a popular choice for home and commercial lighting applications.